February 25, 2009
WE started the class with going over the Russia Tests. If you have not taken it, please do so before Thursday afternoon; people want them back to study for the timed write on Friday.
Communist system – learns from Russia
~Chinese Communist Party (CCP) formed in 1921 (1917 Bolsheviks Revolution in Russia)
*CCP falls under direct control of Moscow. Orders CCP to merge with Nationalist Party in an attempt to unify the country.
~Nationalist (Kuomintang) Party nominally controls central government but real central government could not control country due to immense size.
*Therefore, WARLORDS (Prerevolutionary Chinese leaders who controlled a region or other relatively small part of the country.) rule groups of followers in geographical regions, they have very little if not no concern for central government nor modernization of China
~Communist Party become major force inside the Nationalist Party
*CCP influence spreads to factories and industries
~April 1927 National party force military attack on Communist allies; thousands of Communists slaughtered “Shanghai Massacre”
~With the spilt CCP is essentially an outlaw party. Runs to the countryside
~Mao Zedong creates a government in the countryside and builds a base of support. He emerges the undisputed leader of the Chinese Communist Party.
~Nationalist Party establish security organizations to exterminate Communist growth in cities using military terror.
~1934 - Communist Part finds themselves surrounded by the Nationalist army. Thanks to a diversion, 100,000 communists break through the lines and further into the countryside.
~LONG MARCH (Retreat by the CCP in the mid-1930s, which turned into one of its strengths in recruiting support.) – Mao’s troops trying to move around country avoiding Nationalists. For about a year there are daily skirmishes and weekly battles.
~Mao treats peasants very well. CCP is fed and supported by peasants (BIG difference between Soviet Communists and Chinese Communists)
~1937 - Japan invades China, Nationalists and Communists join forces to expel Japan in the beginning of WWII
~After WWII, the two parties try to negotiate but full-scale civil war soon erupts, and the Nationalist government flees to Taiwan in 1948
~The People's Republic of China is established October 1949. Communists forge new political structures, with a network of party branches in every village. People are organized in work units that provide employment, health care, housing, and education. China becomes increasingly isolated, but relies on the Soviet Union for loans and industry advisors.
~Rise of Chinese Communist Party mark by three elements
1. Mao and communists politicians weren’t just mobilizing economy but it was including population
2. Principle of MASS LINE (Chinese Communist principle that stressed “learning from the masses.”) China recognize CCP depend on the support of general population (i.e. includes peasants) correct leadership meant communicating with people; not secretive as Soviet Union but does not work as well as planned
3. Given CCP experience in the countryside, they believe in self-reliance and EGALITARIAN
~1949-1957 Mao and Communist Part are generally successful in reaching goals
*Enhance CCP power
*Splits with Russia (basically tells them that Chinese communism is better than Soviet Communism)
*Destroy power of Nationalist Party
*Abolish private ownership of industries and agriculture.
-FIVE YEAR PLAN – 1953 half of investment plans into industries
*Eliminate any vested interest of government officials.
~Mao’s plans bring industrialization and urbanization to Chinese. This brings criticism from Chinese intellects
~1957 – Mao asks the people what they think.
*HUNDRED FLOWERS CAMPAIGN (Reformist Chinese campaign in the mid-1950s.) Mao goes to the masses and says “what do you think”, negative response so he is agree when intellects critics them. Crushes opposites: denounces, arrests and punishes them
~1958 – Breaks with Soviet Union form of Communism.
GREAT LEAP FORWARD (Failed Chinese campaign of the late 1950s to speed up development.) accelerated rate of economic growth. Agriculture and industry modest investment in industry
1. feature all around developments including merging peasants and farms called “people’s communes” unit of local government in rural areas
2. Mass mobilization. Make Chinese people work harder
3. Politics take command. Communists shift decision making over from committees
4. Decentralization – loose government control
~Some initial success then serious problems (weak planning controls, poorly planned projects)